Do-it-yourself roof repair at home
Cracks, holes, punctures, and other damage to the roof covering are serious problems that must be addressed before they cause more serious consequences. Dampness and streaks on the ceiling are only a small part of what leaks in the roof can lead to. Problems related to roof repair and roofing are quite normal situations that can be solved without the help of specialists. To find out the technical condition of the roof of the building, it is necessary to conduct a visual inspection of its structure.
It is better to audit the roof in rainy weather – this will allow you to more accurately determine the places where the roof is leaking. If there are no signs of damage to the roof, and the walls and ceiling in the house are still damp, then the cause should be looked for among possible problems in the water supply and central heating system.
The most common reasons, due to which it is necessary to carry out current or major roof repair, include:
- violation of the integrity of the roofing – cracks, tears, dents, and other mechanical damage received during snow removal, cleaning of the roof covering, etc. As a rule, due to mechanical damage, leaks and damage to the thermal insulation cake occur;
- depressurization of the seams of the roofing carpet – loss of tightness of the joints of the roof covering with adjacent elements: chimney, walls, parapet, antennas. In case of violation of the laying technology, depressurization of the joints between the roofing sheets is possible;
- damage to the drainage system – partial or complete failure of the roof drainage system. Typically, problems with drainage are observed on flat roofs, when the water simply stagnates on the roof surface. As a result, both damage to the roofing and the ingress of moisture on the load-bearing walls of the structure can occur.
When inspecting the roof, remember that the leak may not be where water seeps through the roofing pie and drips onto the attic floor. This is due to the design features of pitched roofs, because of which water can freely flow through the rafter system.
The current roof repair is the restoration of the structure and the elimination of local damage to the roof. Usually needed when the area of damage is negligible compared to the total roof repair area. All maintenance work can be done independently. This allows you to significantly save on wages. Instead, you can choose better materials.
The following types of work are referred to the current roof repair:
- replacement of the damaged section of the roofing carpet;
- restoration of the tightness of the joint between various elements of the roofing structure;
- patch repair aimed at overlapping leaky areas of the coating;
- a single replacement of elements of the rafter system;
- roof repair drainage system.
Various materials are used to carry out routine roof repairs, the choice of which directly depends on the roof structure. For example, bitumen roll coatings are used to repair pitched bituminous roofs. When roof repair, metal roofing, galvanized sheet metal, or tiles of similar color are used.
Overhaul of the roof
An overhaul is carried out in cases where more than 40% of the roof surface is damaged of various nature. If the roof repair structure is a rafter system, a thermal insulation pie, a vapor barrier, and a roof covering, then a complete replacement of one of the roof elements is carried out only after a scheduled inspection.
It is better to entrust the overhaul to qualified workers who can not only carry out roof repair work but also eliminate the cause of damage or mistakes made in the design of the roof structure.
Overhaul is required in the following cases:
- inconsistency of the roofing material with the type of roof repair;
- mistakes made when laying the roofing cake;
- inconsistency of the step between the rafter supports;
- the presence of problems with the crate device
- partial or complete absence of roof ventilation;
- violation of the technology of laying and fixing the roofing;
- oversights made during the adjoining of the roof covering to various communications;
- errors in the design of the drainage system.
It should be noted that overhaul is carried out only in cases where the implementation of local repair work is impossible or will not bring results. For example, if there is damage to the rafter system of a gable roof, coupled with damage to the roofing pie, then maintenance is impossible. In this case, a complete search of the thermal insulation layer, replacement of leaky rafter legs, as well as a complete replacement of the roof covering on one of the roof slopes will be required.
When performing a major overhaul, it should be borne in mind that damage to the roof is not always associated with a violation of the technology for working with roofing materials or errors in calculations. Sometimes roof damage is caused by increased ground mobility. Because of this, the bearing elements of the structure are displaced and the rafter legs are skewed, as a result of which there is a depressurization of the connecting seams and damage to the coating.
Repair of the roof system
The rafter system is used to create pitched roofs. It includes vertical struts, inclined rafter legs, and struts. All elements of the system are responsible for the bearing capacity of the pitched roof. With the help of the rafter system, the roof structure is able to withstand the load exerted by the roofing material, the volumes of snow lying on it, as well as streams of flowing water and gusts of strong winds.
The general technology for repairing a rafter system is as follows:
- A visual inspection of the roof structure is carried out in order to identify existing problems. If the damage is detected, its volume is determined. Based on the data obtained, the type of roof repair is selected, as well as the materials that are necessary for the work.
- At the place of damage, the dismantling of the roofing material, thermal insulation cake, and vapor barrier are carried out. After that, the dismantling of the wooden crate is performed. For this, a hand tool is used: a construction knife, an ax, a hammer, a nail puller.
- If the rack, rafter leg, or brace is badly rotted, then the affected area is carefully cut out with a hacksaw or jigsaw. The length of the cut should be 2–2.5 times the length of the affected area. Next, the working area is cleaned with coarse sandpaper and treated with a wood preservative. The cutout area is replaced with a new wood insert.
- At the initial stage of decay, it is sufficient to remove visible traces of mold and rot. You can use sandpaper for this. After that, the cleaned area is dried with a construction hairdryer and treated with an antiseptic. In both cases, a board 80-100 cm long and 3-5 cm thick is stuffed on both sides of the repaired rack or rafter.
During work, it is recommended to substitute temporary supports under the rafter legs or racks being repaired – for this, it is better to do the work with a partner. After replacing the damaged elements, the insulation materials are laid back, the lathing and roofing are installed. If these elements of the pie were also damaged, then their partial or complete replacement is carried out.